Characteristics of self pollinated flowers

Flowers Heute bestellen, versandkostenfrei Characteristics of self-pollinated flowers The characteristics of self-pollinated flower or plants are given below: Self-pollination occurs between anther and pistils of the same flower or different flowers of the same plant. Presence of bisexual flower or monoecious plants are must for self-pollination There are two types of pollination, cross pollination and self pollination. self pollination occur when male part (androecium) of the flower of one plant pollinated on the female part (gynoecium).. Which one of the following is one of the characteristics of self-pollinated flowers? Options. Flowers are large and showy. Flowers remain closed and do not open. Stigma and anthers mature at the same time. Pollen is produced in very large quantities. Advertisement Remove all ads Self-pollinated flowers remain closed and don't open allowing maximum time for the mature stamens and pistils to exchange and receive the gametes. So, the correct option is 'Flowers remain closed and do not open'. Answer verified by Toppr 2290 View

Flowers - Flowers Restposte

Characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of self

  1. In self-pollination, the stigma and the anther lie close to each other and mature at the same time. So, the correct answer is 'Stigma and anthers mature at the same time' Answer verified by Toppr Upvote (0
  2. antly self-pollinated. Only a few (such as maize, rye, pearl millet, buckwheat, or scarlet runner bean) are cross-pollinated
  3. Pollinations can occur either within a flower or between flowers of the same plant or flowers of different plants. Depending on this, pollinations are of three types, namely: Autogamy. It is a type of self-pollination where the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma takes place within the same flower
  4. Gardeners in northern climates often plant two rounds of greens each year, the first in the spring and a second in the fall. The male reproductive cells, or anthers are fused together and completely surround the female cells, or the stigma and style. As the flower grows, the style grows through the anther cone and is self-pollinated
  5. Which plants self-pollinate? Most plants use cross pollination. Those that use insects as pollinators tend to have brightly colored flowers and an attractive scent. Those that are pollinated by the wind have long stamens and pistils with small or no petals. Plants that use self pollination, such as peanuts, tend to have smaller flowers

What are the characteristics of self pollinated plants

The initial type of pollination is termed as self-pollination. This type of pollination occurs when pollen grains get transferred from the anther to the stigma in the same flower. Some of the best examples of self-pollinated flowers are Sunflower and Orchids Some of the characteristics are as follows • Higher yields • Better Quality • Disease and pest resistance • Agronomic characters • Moisture stress and salt tolerance • Wider adaptability. 4. Methodsof BreedingAutogamous species The principle methods of breeding self pollinated crops are: 1. Plant Introduction 2 The plant is a self-pollinating variety of cucumbers ripening 45 days after sowing. A variety of beam type is distinguished by friendly flowering and fruit setting. It has a medium-sized vine with a small number of side lashes. Excellent taste allows you to use the vegetable in any form

I'll give a fewf illustrations of the unique ways some plants attract pollinating insects through flowers or other means. 1. The violet, often pollinated by bees which have the ability to see into the ultraviet spectrum of light. So, violets have. Meaning of Cross-Pollination: If pollen grains are carried to the stigma of a flower of the same species growing on a different plant, it is cross-pollination. All unisexual flowers are cross-pollinated and even the bisexual flowers which, in fact, form the vast majority, have special con­trivances for favouring cross-pollination

Which One of the Following is One of the Characteristics

  1. Again the plants are self-pollinated, but without any selection for resistance character. BC 3-F 2 Generation (Seventh Year): The selection for rust resistance is done in this generation. The rust resistant plants having resemblance with variety A are selected and back-crossed. BC 4 Generation (Eighth Year): Same as BC 2 generation
  2. Self pollinated flowers are--1. They have both stamen and carpel in a flower together. 2. They are mostly cleistogamous means they are closed to avoid cross pollination. 3. They don't need any media to transfer pollen grains. 4. They produce pure lines. Hope it helped!!
  3. CL, assured self pollination before opening of the flower and in Euryale self pol-lination happened when flowers remain closed and with in water. By destructive method, we found that flower bud emerging out of the bract and after 3 - 4 days, self pollinated, i.e. CL occurred. CH i.e. self pollination in open flowers hap
  4. antly self-pollinated. The variations in floral characters were observed in 10 types of germplasm viz., Manipur-2, Manipur-4, Manipur-7, Manipur-9, Selection-17, Selection-23, Selection-27, Selection-28.
  5. Method of Plant Breeding in Self Pollinated Plants - Mass Selection. Mass Selection: Mass selection is a simplest , common and oldest method of crop improvement, in which large number of plants of similar phenotype are selected and their seeds are harvested and mixed together to constitute the new variety
  6. 1) Only important characteristics should be recorded. 2) Only the promising should be included in the record. Poor progenies may be simply marked discard. 3) The pedigree record must be accurate. Application of Pedigree Method: 1) Selection of desirable plants from the segregating population in self- pollinated crops

cross- and self-pollinated, flowers 24 - 35 days after planting; both flowers open between 4:00 pm and 4:50 am. The ratio of male to female flowers varied from 7:1 to 17:1 at 28 -days a nd 35-da. Self-pollinated plants must be visited by pollinators for fertilization to occur. Which of the following statements about plant reproduction is incorrect? The ultraviolet patterns repel birds and bats from the flowers Self-pollinated flowers yield significantly (p≤0.0002) less fruit and seed per inflorescence and have more aborted seeds per fruit . Seed production: Sundial lupine may begin flowering in its 2nd year, but likely starts later in mediocre conditions [ 40 , 66 , 82 ] Gardeners enjoy the beauty and fragrance of flowers, but from a plant's standpoint flowers have one very basic and essential function - to ensure the production of seeds and thus the next generation. For a plant to produce seeds its flowers must be pollinated, either through self-pollination or cross-pollination, and most plants have evolved t

Characteristics of Entomophilous Flowers: Entomophilous flowers are coloured for attracting pollinating insects. Moths visit whitish flowers, butterflies and wasps reddish flowers, bees are attracted towards blue, purple-violet and yellow flowers. Bees use ultraviolet radiations for observation. Red appears black in ultraviolet radiations Self-pollinated crops, such as beans and peas, have evolved strategies to ensure self-fertilization. Often their flower structure prevents the easy movement of pollen outside the flower or flowers. 3. The plants of the F₁ generation were allowed to self-pollinate. The offspring formed the F₂ generation. Results. All the F₁ generation plants were alike. When plants in the F₁ generation are self-pollinated, the plants in the F₂ generation are no longer the same (exhibit two different characteristics)

Which one of the following is one of the characteristics

Thus, the self-pollinated variety of cucumbers, which is grown in open soil, is characterized by the presence of a pistil, stamen, on which dew falls, thanks to this process pollination is carried out. The main varieties include: Patti, King, Prestige, Stella, April. Each variety is characterized by its own characteristics In pure line selection, large numbers of plants are selected from a self-pollinated crop and is harvested individually, individual plant progenies from them are evaluated separately and the best one is released as pure line variety. Therefore it is also known as individual plant selection. Characteristics of Pure Line : 1

Wind Pollination. Wind pollinator flowers may be small, no petals, and no special colors, odors, or nectar. These plants produce enormous numbers of small pollen grains. For this reason, wind-pollinated plants may be allergens, but seldom are animal-pollinated plants allergenic. Their stigmas may be large and feathery to catch the pollen grains The genome size of self-pollinated progeny of octoploid B. napus varied greatly, and was accompanied by extensive genomic instability, such as aneuploidy, mixed-ploidy and mitotic abnormality. The octoploid B. napus could go through any of genome reduction, equilibrium or expansion in the short-term, thus providing a novel karyotype library for.

Self-pollination - Wikipedi

We identified 63,485 unigenes in the three libraries (Sample T1 for non-pollinated flowers, Sample T2 for self-pollinated flowers, and Sample T3 for cross-pollinated flowers). In the absence of E. breviscapus genomic information, the availability of the transcriptome data will provide a valuable resource to investigate the mechanisms of SI. Characteristics of self-pollinated cucumbers . Vegetable gardeners and amateur gardeners know the fact that cucumbers can be pollinated by bees and can also be pollinated by themselves. Cucumbers self-pollinated on open soil, characterized by an early, rich harvest BackgroundSelf-incompatibility (SI) is a widespread and important mating system that promotes outcrossing in plants. Erigeron breviscapus, a medicinal herb used widely in traditional Chinese medicine, is a self-incompatible species of Asteraceae. However, the genetic characteristics of SI responses in E. breviscapus remain largely unknown. To understand the possible mechanisms of E. Vegetables are pollinated in two basic ways: self pollination and cross pollination. • Self pollinators are plants that produce flowers that are usually fertilized by their own pollen, commlonly when the male and female flower parts are contained within the same flower. • Cross pollinators are plants with flowers that require pollen from another flower (a male flower on the same plant.

It is not necessary to be large and showy of the flowers. Also, it is not necessary to produce Scent and Nectar in flowers. Disadvantages of Self-Pollination: Self-pollination may lead to a weakening of the variety of generations or the species. The seeds produced may be poor in quality. The defective characteristics may not be eliminated In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available The key difference between insect and wind pollination is that the plants that use insect pollination produce colourful, attractive and scented flowers, while the plants that use wind pollination produce small, dull and less attractive flowers.. Pollination is the process of transferring pollen from anthers to the stigma of a flower. There are two types of pollination; self-pollination and.

Self-pollinated plants are the easiest to save and include: Beans, Chicory, Endive, Lettuce, Peas, Tomatoes. You can also save many heirloom flower seeds such as cleome, foxgloves, hollyhock, nasturtium, sweet pea, and zinnia PURE LINE SELECTION. A pure line is the progeny of a single, homozygous, self-pollinated plant. In pure line selection, a large number of plants are selected from a self-pollinated crop and are harvested individually; individual plant progenies from than are evaluated, and the best progeny is released as pureline variety For this same characteristic (flower color), white-colored flowers are a recessive trait. The fact that the recessive trait reappeared in the F 2 generation meant that the traits remained separate (not blended) in the plants of the F 1 generation. Mendel also proposed that plants possessed two copies of the trait for the flower-color. S, I Self-pollinated, insect pollinated Pear, Asian pear C/S, I Self-pollinated or cross-pollinated depending on variety, though most are cross-pollinated and need at least two varieties present to produce fruit. Insect pollinated. Honey bees and many native pollinators including several species of solitary bees serve as effective pollinators

Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring. An offspring is heterotic if its traits are enhanced as a result of mixing the genetic contributions of its parents. These effects can be due to Mendelian or non-Mendelian inheritanc About 9% of the self-pollinated plants produced 10 to 73 seeds each, and only one produced 271 seeds. The seed viability averaged 8%, but the number of S1 plants established was even lower. Plant characteristics of plants of the S1 families that were different from the parents included the absence of viable pollen, the presence of yellow. Mr. Prasanta Misra has given us a right source to know about inbreeding depression. I am not a breeder to give you full details of breeding techniques of self and cross-pollinated crops. In brief: Certain self-pollinated crops like rice, wheat, so.. The next stage was to cross-pollinate plants with different characteristics, such as one with green seed pods to one with yellow seed pods. These initial plants are called the P (Parental) generation. The resulting offspring, the F1 (Filial generation) were then self pollinated to produce the F2 generation

Kinds of Plants That Are Self-Pollinated Home Guides

  1. When tomatoes cross pollinate, the genetic material of the two tomato varieties will combine and the seeds will be hybridized. Cross pollination will not affect the fruit, only the seeds inside. If you plant those seeds, the next generation (called F1) tomato plant will have a mix of characteristics of the two parent tomato plants
  2. antly (approx. 70%) self-pollinated. Some soybean cultivars are entirely cleistogamous
  3. Method of Plant Breeding in Self Pollinated Plants - Pure Line Selection Johansons Pure Line Theory (1903): The concept of pure line was proposed by Danish botanist Johan seen in 1903 on the basis of his studies on Princess beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) , which is highly self pollinated species. He obtained commercial seed lot of princess variety of bean

Self-Pollination and Cross-Pollination Biology for Majors I

  1. Self-pollinated vs. open-pollinated plants Self-pollinated plants have both male (stamen) and female (pistil) parts on the flower and can produce fruit without outside pollination. Legumes are a common example of self-pollinated plants, and thus are the easiest seeds to save as no special treatment is needed
  2. e the spacing of vegetables in the garden to
  3. Only some of the Hymenoptera landed on the flowers from the front and elicited pollination mechanisms. Most of the insects sucked the nectar from the back without any pollen transfer. Finally, morphological and functional characteristics of C. emerus flowers are discussed in terms of floral larceny and reduction in pollination efficiency
  4. Parthenocarpic and self-pollinated cucumbers are fundamentally different according to the principle of the appearance of ovaries. The first type of plants for the appearance of fruits, as already mentioned, does not require pollination at all, and the second cucumbers are pollinated independently, that is, for the appearance of ovaries on them.

Self-pollination botany Britannic

  1. Find an answer to your question Explain main characteristics of self pollinated plants. hydenpaulhyden3445 hydenpaulhyden3445 06.03.2018 Science Secondary School Explain main characteristics of self pollinated plants. 1 See answer hydenpaulhyden3445 is waiting for your help. Add your answer and earn points
  2. Open-Pollinated . Open-pollinated plants require the wind, insects (pollinators like bees), or the gardener to help pollinate the flowers so they can set fruit and produce seeds. In some cases, the plant will produce both male and female flowers, like squash or pumpkin plants. If this is the case, moving the pollen from a male flower to the stigma of a female flower is all that is needed
  3. ed to induce early flowering of self-pollinated F2 plants after approximately 50 days of growth in 16/9 h (light/dark)The flowering time was the number of days from the date of planting to the date of the first inflorescence formation NF no flower formation from plants grown in.
  4. plants. Erigeron breviscapus, a medicinal herb used widely in traditional Chinese medicine, is a self-incompatible species of Asteraceae. However, the genetic characteristics of SI responses in E. breviscapus remain largely unknown. To understand the possible mechanisms of E. breviscapus in response to SI, we performed a comparative transcriptomi
  5. He self-pollinated plants until they bred true - giving rise to similar characteristics generation after generation. He studied easily distinguishable characteristics like the color and texture of the peas, the color of the pea pods and flowers, and the height of the plants
  6. ous plants and the development of.

In self-pollinated plants, pollen produced within each flower pollinates the stigma of the same flower. Cotton, barley, wheat, oats, tobacco, soybeans, okra, peanuts, and peppers are examples of self-pollinated crops. In cross-pollinated plants, the pollen grains pollinate flowers other than the one from which they originated. Examples include. Tomato is a self-pollinated plant species with closed flowers. Its flowers are already pollinated when the flowers begin to open. Therefore, artificial emasculation is necessary during tomato hybrid seed production (Shivanna et al. 1997; Staniaszek et al. 2012) but is labor intensive and time consuming Cross-pollinated flowers received pollen from an average of five donor plants located >20 m from the focal plant, whereas hand self-pollinated flowers received their own pollen and pollen from other fertile flowers of the same individual. After pollination, all plants were rebagged until 15 May, when fruit set was assessed Self-pollinated flowers produced no fruits, and all of the characteristic post-pollination events cited above were verified, witnessing the occurrence of LSI with post-zygotic rejection of selfed pistils in C. antisyphilitica. Although some indications of extended pistil longevity were found in selfed pistils, this feature seemed to be affected. 2. Two pea plants were subjected cross pollination. Of the 183 plants produced in the next generation, 94 plants were found to be tall and 89 plants were found to be dwarf. The genotypes of the two parental plants are likely to be. 3. Monoclonal antibodies are produced from hybird cells, called hybridomas. The cells employed to obtain these.

What is the difference between Self and Cross PollinationDilleniidae Violaceae, Rosidea Apiaceae at Colorado State

Types of Flowers That Self-Pollinate Home Guides SF Gat

Self-incompatibility (SI) is a widespread and important mating system that promotes outcrossing in plants. Erigeron breviscapus, a medicinal herb used widely in traditional Chinese medicine, is a self-incompatible species of Asteraceae. However, the genetic characteristics of SI responses in E. breviscapus remain largely unknown self-pollinated, cross-pollinated and asexually propagated species - brief account of breeding methods Plant breeding aims to improve the characteristics of plants so that they become more desirable agronomically and economically. The specific objectives may vary greatl germplasm which express the desired characteristics such as resistance to pest and diseases, early maturity, yield, and others. These traits may not be present in only one line, thus selected lines are bred together by hand. In self-pollinated plants, flowers are emasculated by removing the anthers or the male part of the flower b In case of Dwarf varieties that is predominantly self pollinated ( imbreeding ).the female and male flowers mature simultaneously ( 90 % self pollination ) and inflorescence produce more flowers.

Flowers can have either all male parts, all female parts, or a combination. plant breeding A flower is self-pollinated (a selfer) if pollen is transferred to it from any flower of the same plant and cross-pollinated (an outcrosser or outbreeder) if the pollen comes from a flower on a different plant. The characteristic. Much improvements in yields and other characteristics can be made in these crops. Plant breeding, together with improved crop management practices, is the only answer to the ever increasing demand for food-grains. Selection: In self-pollinated crops, selection permits reproduction only in those plants that have the desirable characteristics Hand-pollinated flowers set more viable seeds per fruit (213-215) and produced heavier fruits (213-225 g) with higher total soluble solids (TSS) contents (15.3-15.8 °Brix) than self-pollinated (bagged) or bee-pollinated flowers (70-100 seeds per fruit; fruit weight 86-87 g with 14.3-14.7% TSS content) An experiment was conducted during 2017 and 2018 at active field gene bank of ICAR-National Research Centre on Litchi to assess the effect of open cross pollination and self-pollination on fruit set and fruit characteristics in litchi. Nine cultivars of litchi were selected for study and result indicated that fruit set ranged from 17.41 to 68.14 per cent with maximum in 'Ellaichi' and. • Self pollinated means that the plant will pollinate and fertilize itself • Both types require that you crosstone plan with another in order to generate variation that you will use as the basis of your selections! • Vegetatively ‐propagated plants still need to be flowered i

When pink-flowered plants of F1 generations are self-pollinated i.e. crossed among themselves, the F2 plants with red (RR), pink (Rr) and white (rr) flowers appear in the ratio 1:2:1. Here the phenotype ratio matches the genotype ratio of a monohybrid cross, but the phenotype ratio had changed from Mendelian ratio 3:1 Farmers with high yield production are armed with corn cross pollination info that helps them prevent the loss of the original crop. The effects of cross pollinating can be reduced characteristics, but it can also include a phenomenon called hybrid vigor. This is when the next generation or two from cross pollinating result in enhanced plants The method used to achieve this is by carefully selecting two parent plants and cross pollinating them. This process causes the seed s produced in the resulting fruit to be imbued with some of the characteristics of both parent plants. When the seeds are planted, the resulting plant and fruit are a new hybrid variety Partenocarpic self-pollinated cucumber varieties are becoming increasingly popular among gardeners. These varieties, or rather hybrids, help to get rid of many problems. Modern hybrids can be grown in greenhouses and open beds, pickled and pickled. April variety belongs to such hybrids, it is increasingly planted by summer residents in their.

Difference Between Self and Cross Pollination

Fundamentals of Genetics and Plant Breeding. By Md. Mahfuz Ur Rahman Email: 12109085@iubat.edu fGenetics Genetics can be defined as the study of heredity, the process in which a parent passes certain genes onto their offspring. Heredity describes how some traits are passed from parents to their children Plants differing in one character. Mendel chose seven different characters to study. The word character in this regard means a specific property of an organism; geneticists use this term as a synonym for characteristic or trait.. For each of the characters that he chose, Mendel obtained lines of plants, which he grew for two years to make sure that they were pure With physiological coaxing, these asparagus plants were successfully self-pollinated. What did this mean for asparagus breeding, you ask? It's a long story that begins with a reflection back to your high school biology days. A majority of crops are monoecious, for example pumpkin and corn, and have separate male and female flowers on the same. When the F1plants were self-pollinated, the resulting F2 generation had some red, some white and some pink flowers. (i) Identify the relationship between the red and white alleles for flower colour In contrast, the m ag stained massulae on stigmas of the f ag self-pollinated flowers from which pollinators removed stained pollinaria could have been deposited by geitonogamy and/or facilitated autogamy. Given these massulae and flower counts, the fraction of self-massulae resulting from geitonogamy can be estimated by g = m g (f g + f a g.

Flowers and Pollination. Guavas are usually self-pollinated, although pollination may also occur by insects, primarily the honeybee. Even self-pollinating trees tend to produce more fruit when planted near another guava. A mature tree can set many flowers, of which about 80 to 85 percent actually set fruit Distance matters when saving seed. Ron Goldy, Michigan State University Extension - October 21, 2013. When saving seed, distance between other suitable pollinizers makes a difference for seed purity. Some plants are self-pollinated and others are cross-pollinated by wind or insects. Pollination biology is important in maintaining genetic purity

Self-Pollination - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Flowers. Flowers are important in the sexual reproduction of plants. They produce male sex cells (pollen grains) and female sex cells (contained in the ovules). These must meet for reproduction to. The flowers open and close in a single day and are either cross-pollinated, primarily by domesticated honey bees (Apis mellifira L.) (Tamargo and Jones 1954), or self-pollinated by the twisting closing movement of the petals. Tamargo and Jones (1954) reported the cross-pollination for 9 strains ranged from 2% to 24% He knew from his research that plants can be self-pollinated to produce pure strains. When the hybrid of F 1 plants were self-pollinated approximately 75% of the third generation (labeled the F 2 or second filial generation ) showed the characteristics of their parents, or the F 1 generation, in this case, round peas The percentage of fruit set in the 2 varieties as observed after 2 weeks of pollination. In Cha-nee they were 0-6 for open and self pollinated and 30.1-63.61 for cross pollinated. In Kanyao, they were 21.19 and 87.09-89.68 for open and cross pollinated

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Types of Pollination- Self and Cross Pollination in Plant

The seedlings were relatively uniform and produced dark purple-red flowers on long erect flower stems. Chromosome counts showed that they were tetraploid. A selected individual, JCS1-49, was self-pollinated in 1973, and two seedlings, K327-16 and K327-7, were sib-mated in 1979 to produce a third generation inbred population, K634 When the plants of first generation are self-pollinated and their seeds are cultivated , the plants of second generation ( F2 ) have red , purple and white flowers in ratio 1 : 2 : 1 , respectively . In scientific references , it is mentioned that crossing a red-flowered plant with a white-flowered one will produce generation of pink-flowered. Areas Besides for pollination, the wing does help spread many seeds. The adaptations appear in the self pollinated plants are Cleistogamy, Homogamy, Movement of floral parts, Incomplete dichogamy, safety mechanism. Extreme variations in From the pistil, the pollen finds its way to the ovules of the ovary The bulk-population method of breeding differs from the pedigree method primarily in the handling of generations following hybridization. The F2 generation is sown at normal commercial planting rates in a large plot. At maturity the crop is harvested in mass, and the seeds are used to establish the next generation in a similar plot Three characteristics of sorghum give it a potential advantage over corn in dry areas: Corn is cross-pollinated. Severe drought at silking time may cause barren ears (no kernels). Sorghum is self-pollinated and produces heads over a longer time period because tillers develop over several weeks

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Equal Segregation of Alleles. Observing that true-breeding pea plants with contrasting traits gave rise to F 1 generations that all expressed the dominant trait and F 2 generations that expressed the dominant and recessive traits in a 3:1 ratio, Mendel proposed the law of segregation.This law states that paired unit factors (genes) must segregate equally into gametes such that offspring have. Its pollinator is a beetle (which would explain why its flower smells mildly awful) but its flower blooms in two stages. On each tree, the female flower parts are exposed first in the early part of the day. Then this part of the flower closes and the male parts (stamens) are extended. This ensures that any one tree can't be self-pollinated Sorghum is normally a self-pollinated crop, but cross- pollination can occur. Male sterile plants produce no anthers and thus no pollen for self-fertilization. If no pollen source is nearby to cross pollinate, then male sterile plants will produce no grain A stricter definition is: a heterogeneous variety of a cross-pollinated crop this is allowed to inter-pollinate freely during seed production. Open-pollinated cultivars will produce plants reasonably true-to-type but by nature there is more natural variation in a open-pollinated than a self-pollinated crop Pollination is the process of transferring pollen from one anther to the receptive surface of the pistil in plants.(Purves, G-21) Pollination is most common in angiosperms, which are flowering plants.Although pollination occurs mostly in angiosperms pollen and pollen tubes are also used in gymnosperms. There are four types of pollination: cross pollination, self pollination, water pollination.